Thursday, November 6, 2014
Abstract: In the beginning, the Comprehensive Disaster Management Program (CDMP) designed to strengthen the national capacity to reduce the risk and to improve response to and recovery from the impacts of disasters and climate change in Bangladesh. In the Part of this assigned project CDMP Phase II (CDMP II) launched Academic Program at Master's level belongs to several universities in Bangladesh including Bangladesh University of Professionals (BUP). The Coordinator is BUP Platform II (BUP II) is a military force supported scientific research organization operates by BUP and Bangladesh Army targeted to research on Hazard and Disaster in Bangladesh along with academic class to protect and risk reduction of future destructive flow. Associate Professor (FTES) Lt. Col. Muhammad Ershad Hossain G, Artillery, Co-founder and Chief of THE COORDINATOR (BUP II) are belonging to the students of this program and research. This assignment's fundamental target is; I. Geographical, Economical & Administrative Context of Hazards in Bangladesh. II. Mathematical Revelation among Hazard, Vulnerability, Risk and Capacity.
Revelation among Hazard, Vulnerability, Risk and Capacity:
In a sentence; Hazard is a destructive flow. According to terms of hazards Bangladesh is divided into three zones, Alfa, Delta and Omega stands for hills, terraces and flood plain respectively. In the geographical system Bangladesh is bounded between 20°34' to 26°38'N latitude and 88°01' to 92°41'E and has an approximate area of 147,570 sq.km. Hazard is a destructive flow of a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. Hazard divided into three state; State of Dormant, State of Armed and State of Active; and geologist suggested four types' hazard, physical hazards, chemical hazards, biological hazards and allergenic hazard. Mathematically Hazards belongs to Risk, Vulnerability, Capacity; wherever,
Hazards = (Risk x Capacity)/Vulnerability
Study of Hazards: There are many causes beyond the hazards, natural process is cause of hazard, and can include obvious hazards such as volcanoes to smaller scale hazards such as loose rocks on a hillside and earthquake is the cause of unpredictable hazards. An Earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The short answer is that earthquakes are caused by faulting, a sudden lateral or vertical movement of rock along a rupture (break) surface. In particular, people believed that the breaks in the Earth's surface--faults--which appear after earthquakes, were caused by the earthquakes rather than the cause of them. It was Bunjiro Koto, a geologist in Japan studying a 60-mile long fault whose two sides shifted about 15 feet in the great Japanese earthquake of 1871, who first suggested that earthquakes were caused by faults. Henry Reid, studying the great San Francisco earthquake of 1906, took the idea further. He said that an earthquake is the huge amount of energy released when accumulated strain causes a fault to rupture. He explained that rock twisted further and further out of shape by continuing forces over the centuries eventually yields in a wrenching snap as the two sides of the fault slip to a new position to relieve the strain. This is the idea of "elastic rebound" which is now central to all studies of fault rupture.
Newton's' Law of Universal Gravitation suggested every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
University of Illinois Professor Dr. Youssef Hashash suggested belonging with his student along with project paper ”Study of New Port Along With Military Facility in Anchorage, Alaska and Development of Hashash-Obama Earthquake Theory” that earthquake belonging to the Illinois Compact Object that the proposed a theory of Hashash-Obama Earthquake Theory. The theory state that:
HASHASH-OBAMA EARTHQUAKE THEORY:
“An Earthquake (Timing, Location and Magnitude) is inversely proportional to the Ebb-Tide, wherever; 1. Ebb-Tide is the causes of Effects of Moon's Gravity and Tidal acceleration. 2. Earthquake is the causes by the Illinois Compact Matter, a compressed masses galactic object apply force acceleration on the Plate tectonics, volcanic system, Mountain and Oceanic trench.”
Common hazards in Bangladesh: Bangladesh is a hazards area such as;
Tropical cyclones, and
Flood is most common hazard Bangladesh.
Earthquakes in Bangladesh: The eastern part of Bangladesh and the southwestern part of Burma lie along the highly oblique convergent boundary between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. 1762 Arakan earthquake occurred at about 17:00 local time on 2 April, with an epicentre somewhere on the coast from Chittagong (modern Bangladesh) to Arakan in modern Myanmar. The earthquake lasted for about four minutes at Chittagong. The epicentre is not well-constrained and likely locations have varied from near Chittagong to along the Arakan coast. In Chittagong it was reported that no buildings or walls built of brick had escaped either destruction or serious damage. In 1997 Chittagong earthquake 23 people were killed when a 5-storey building collapsed in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The shaking could also be felt in Dhaka. In The 2011 Sikkim earthquake the earthquake was felt most strongly in northern Bangladesh. The quake was also felt in Dhaka, Sylhet, Faridpur, Bogra and as far as Chittagong. Panicked people rushed out of their homes and offices, but the only damage seems to be tilted and cracked buildings; no casualties were reported. Cell phone lines were also down for a few minutes during the quake.
Floods in Bangladesh: Flood is a very common hazard in Bangladesh and causes of much disaster. In every year Bangladesh's many land portion effect by the flood. 1998 Bangladesh floods, 1999 Bangladesh floods, 2007 South Asian floods are remarkable in the modern Bangladesh flood history. Following life and property damaged with the flood including Cyclone Sidr-2007;
Half of the districts were affected
100,000sq km (66%) of the country was overwhelmed
1,050 deaths reported
30 million people affected
25 million people left homeless
26,000 livestock lost
575,000 hectares destroyed
20,000 education facilities damaged
300,000 wells damaged
16,000 km of roads flooded
4,500 km of river embankments destroyed
Tornadoes in Bangladesh: The Daulatpur-Saturia, Bangladesh Tornado at April 26, 1989 is remarkable Tornadoe hit Dhaka and Dhaka Metropolitan area and Damage was extensive over the area, as countless trees were uprooted and every home within a six square kilometer area of the tornado's path was completely destroyed.
Tropical cyclones in Bangladesh: 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, 1970 Bhola cyclone, Cyclone Aila, Cyclone Akash, Cyclone Bijli, Cyclone Rashmi, Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876, and Cyclone Sidr damaged many life and properties in Bangladesh.
Conclusion: Though Bangladesh is natural hazards area but recently Bangladeshi peoples suffering from Manmade hazard more than natural hazards. The Manmade hazard appearing to the political hazards that damaging life and properties. We need to be more conscious about the manmade hazards. As a developing country Bangladeshi peoples has enough capability to absorb the flood zone's hazard without multimode technological complexity like United States that appearing every years. But we do not know how to overcome manmade hazard like Political Hazard, Hazards of Traffic System in Dhaka Metropolitan area.
1. Towards Resilience. Issue 10, October 2012, Monthly News Bulletin of CDMP II, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, Bangladesh.
2. Disaster Management in Bangladesh: http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/index.php?Itemid=27&id=145&option=com_content&task=category
3. Hazard, free encyclopedia: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazard
4. Earthquake Hazards Program of United States Geological Survey (USGS): http://earthquake.usgs.gov (note: the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), established by Congress in 1977. We monitor and report earthquakes, assess earthquake impacts and hazards, and research the causes and effects of earthquake.)
5. Reply to ASK-AN-EARTH-SCIENTIST: http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/earthquakes.html DR. GERARD FRYER, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822
6. Professor Dr. Youssef Hashash, Ph.D., John Burkitt Webb Endowed Faculty Scholar, Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: http://cee.illinois.edu/faculty/youssefhashash AND http://illinois.edu/ds/www/hashash
7. Natural disasters in Bangladesh: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Natural_disasters_in_Bangladesh
8. Map data 2013, AutoNavi, Google, Tele Atlas
9. Study of New Port Along With Military Facility in Anchorage, Alaska and Development of Hashash-Obama Earthquake Theory by Hatashe and Professor Dr. Youssef Hashash, Ph.D. University of Illinois System